Miniature Bull Terriër
Good health of the miniature bull terriër is very important
It's very important that the miniature bullterriër you are used to breed have one very good health. Therefore it is very important to your miniature bullterriër in advance examination of heart, kidneys and eyes.
We also show our dogs which cover plate will find both males and females in advance testing on PLL, Heart and Kidneys. We therefore make use of only healthy dogs in our breeding program.
The two most common congenital heart defects and inherited by his Bullterriers subvalvular aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. In his opening and closing of the mitral insufficiency mitraliskleppen not so good.
The mitral valve is the valve between the left atrium and left ventricle. Because the valves are not as good opening / closing (leak) is needed for the contraction of the left ventricle is not all blood driven into the aorta. A portion of the blood will flow back into the left atrium. The adverse effects depend on the amount of blood flowing back into the atrium.
They divided the severity of the disease in three grades
- Grade 1 is mild mitraaldysplasie
- Grade 2 is a moderate form of mitraaldysplasie
- Grade 3 is a severe form of mitraaldysplasie
In the mild form and often in the moderate form, the dog usually has no symptoms. These dogs can lead a relatively normal life.
The following symptoms may lead to mitraaldysplas
- Faster fatigue
- Difficult breathing
This is caused by fluid in the lungs. Other symptoms include.
- General weakness
- Or collapse
This is caused by an abnormal heart rhythm. Dogs with a mild form can easily be 10 years or older. Nevertheless, it is advisable not to breed these dogs. When paired with a partner with the same mild form it is likely that offspring are born that moderate or even severe mitraaldysplasie the show.
Subvalvular aortic stenosis is a narrowing of the aorta just below the valve. This causes problems for the har because it harder to pump blood to the left ventricle into the body to get. If the heart has to work harder than the heart muscle does this by putting on weight. If the muscle is thicker then the chamber is reduced by the left ventricle less blood can handle. A thickened heart muscle also has more oxygen, the blood vessels to the muscle of oxygen can be provided by the thickening does not get enough blood to the heart muscle. There occur changes in the heart and the effects of narrowing of the aorta. All this can lead to heart failure and sudden death. Sometimes even before the dog shows symptoms. An apparently healthy dog can suddenly drop dead.
Subvalvular aortic stenosis has just as mitraaldysplasi three grades, mild, moderate and severe. It earned the recommendation to animals through Doppler echocardiography tested for a heart condition before they are used for breeding.
Color Doppler ultrasound
For some time the animals have an updated medical ultrasound device, the color Doppler ultrasound. The main advantage of this device is that it can be better examined for congenital heart defects, such as a hole between the left and right heart. In later years acquired heart problems, such as a leaky heart valve can be visualized better.
What is the difference with "normal" ultrasound?
The color Doppler ultrasound can reverse flow of blood, using a color, into view. If a heart valve does not close properly so it will be seen by a blood flow (in the form of a color) that the "wrong side" of flow (control).
There are also the color Doppler ultrasound is very good to see swirls into the bloodstream. These vortices (turbulence) caused for example by a heart valve abnormality (mitral regurgitation) or narrowing of an artery / aorta (subvalulaire oartastenose).
The device can also record video and examine photos of defects and print it.
On the unit is also an ECG module, and may be made of phonograms in rushing. When a phonogram is a graph of the noise in (soufflé) made and placed on the ECG that can be seen in what part of the heartbeat cycle, the noise occurs. The latter is again important because it is an indication that the cause must be sought.
Especially for the detection of congenital heart defects, the color Doppler ultrasound an indispensable tool for making the correct diagnosis.
Each animal has two kidneys. The kidney is shaped like a bean. the kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity, against the back muscles and spine, just behind the ribs. Dent of the bean in the running blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves and ureters and the kidney. The kidney is supplied with blood by the renal arteries from the aorta to the kidney lead. the renal artery, also called real artery stenosis.
The kidney is made up of small filtersystem. Each kidney has a ball system at small blood vessels that act as a sieve. The difficult name for such a sieve is a nephron. The capillaries called glomerulus. The blood cells and large proteins can not by the glomerulus. Other substances are. These are collected in Bowman's capsule, which is a funnel below the sieve. At the Institute of the capsule of Bowman starts tube or kidney tubules. The tubules run of the capsule of Bowman into the interior of the kidney, this makes a hairpin turn back to the glomerulus. The glomerulus pass into collection tubes which come together in the pelvis. The urine leaves the urether here via the kidney towards the bladder.
Nephron contains a glomerulus, Bowman's capsule and a tubule. The kidney contains thousands of nephrons. All glomeruli, so the blood vessels lie on the outside of the kidney, the renal cortex. All the tubules, so the renal tubules, walk inside the kidney. These tubes form a pattern in the kidney and forms the kidney medulla.
The kidney contains thousands of nephrons
The ureters are thin tubes from the kidneys on the roof of the abdomen into the bladder. They go through the bladder wall and walk a little further. In this way the bladder closed when it is full and the back flow of urine.
There are two waste from the blood by the kidneys are removed
Urea formed by the digestion of proteins. Creatinine occurs in muscle breakdown. Both substances are not very toxic, but can easily be detected in the blood. If the concentration of urea and cretonne increased in the blood one can assume that the concentration of other toxic gases have increased and there is something wrong with the detoxification function of the kidneys. This situation is called uremia. Uremia is a place only if 70% of the kidney stops functioning.
Symptoms of a malfunctioning urinary tract
- The kidney, but makes the kidney is not functioning. The urea / creatinine ratio is greater than 150 (urea fortunate to creatinine levels. Pre-renal uraemia which the kidneys are not enough blood. The reason for this lies outside.
- Renal uremia. The cause of the kidney is not functioning in the kidney itself. The urea / creatinine ratio is higher than 100.
- The postrenal uraemia where the cause lies in the draining urinary tract, ie in the ureters or bladder. Example, in a urine blockage can not leave. This can also be made little primary urine. The urea / creatinine ratio is higher than 150.
Symptoms of a malfunctioning urinary tract.
- Weight loss
- Abnormal behaviour
- Change in urination pattern
- Increased urination (polyuria)
- Drink a lot (plydipsie)
- Sometimes little or no urine production (anuria)
Uraemia caused by renal failure. Symptoms of uremia include vomiting, nausea, odor from the mouth, abnormal behavior, sores in the mucous membranes, are feeling stirs. A uraemia will take place once 70% of the kidneys stop working. For animals is almost always too late. People can have a renal transplants. One should minimize the kidney burden and the animal should be put on a kidney diet.
BIn acute renal failure kidney stops suddenly and with uremia occurs. There is a rapid acidification of the blood instead (acidosis), which is life threatening. An animal shall be on a drip to try to force the kidney to go back to work. Next, the cause of the acute renal failure are addressed, it may be a bacterium.
The urea and creatinine is easy using blood test by your veterinarian. The use of urine test strips and shows less reliable
Primary Lens Luxation (PLL)
Also in this breed are hereditary problems, here is some explanation. The lens hanging around so-called suspension straps, these are strong and can have quite a beating. The problems come when the suspension straps break and the lens comes loose to lie. There are several reasons for this to break these ties. This may be caused by trauma, by a loud bang or genetic abnormality. Slowly breaking the straps hanging down, and vitreous leak through to the front of the eye, this is the earliest noticeable symptom of the lens luxation. If the suspension straps are broken, the lens is completely separate to lie, the vitreous has to go through the pupil and comes forward. Then, the pressure in the eye and causes glaucoma (glaucoma).
The lens may be back in the eye bags, then the optic nerve and the blood vessels are visible. The lens can also as a whole come to lie on the eye, as a glassy disk. If the lens forward to the cornea remains "sanding" damaged the cornea. It is already too high a pressure in the eye has occurred, then it will be blue cornea. The eye is blind and painful, lens luxation and become an early stage, so the eye pressure is too high, then the lens through surgery removed. The dog may postoperatively less sharp, but everything can still distinguish.
PLL can reveal itself at the age of 3-7 years.
LETHAL ACRODEMATITIS (LAD)
LAD is a very nasty congenital disorder that ultimately results in the death of the dog. It occurs with both the Standard and the Miniature Bull Terrier. There are veterinarians who say they have seen it with other breeds, only official records of it cannot be found.
The most striking thing about dogs with LAD are the many skin infections. They are a bit like the inflammation that is seen in people with acrodermatitis enteropathica, among other things. In humans, this is caused by the inability to absorb zinc. Because of this dogs with LAD are also called Zincertjes (with a c, in his English).
In humans the symptoms can be remedied by giving an enormous amount of zinc, in the Bull Terrier it doesn't work.
LAD FROM HEAD TO ASS & INSIDE OUT
Size does matter.
A dog with LAD is remarkably small in size, often half smaller than their litter mates. In addition to being smaller, they look thin. Once a little older they look stunted.
Food is tricky.
Eating is difficult due to an elevated palate. At first they seem to drink well, but when you weigh them before and after the meal they appear to have eaten (almost) nothing. The transition to a porridge often works reasonably well, but when the food gets a bit stuck it sticks to the raised palate. There is also talk about swallowing problems and a shortened tongue.
Dogs with LAD can show all variants of diarrhea. This can start quite young and vary from somewhat mushy, thin poops to bloody. When a dog has (long-term) much and especially very thin diarrhea, there is always the risk of dehydration, especially with small and young dogs.
Immune system and metabolism not functioning properly. The immune system of a LAD dog does not work well. This makes them susceptible to anything. Bacterial and yeast infections of the skin (skin inflammations are listed separately as a characteristic symptom) and respiratory infections are often the result. Deviations have been found in the liver and metabolism in (among other things) the area of the buyer and zinc household.
Keeping the body at the right temperature is a bit difficult for LAD dogs.
Coat color faded.
Dogs with LAD are born with a normal fur color. After a few weeks, it starts to fade slowly. Not to be confused with dogs born with a bleached coat as a result of a "bleaching gene". There are reports that the coloring increases slightly in "good periods".
A special walk.
The front legs are slightly bent and the feet spread out. The back is weakened. It looks like the dog is walking on the side of its feet. There is often some difficulty with coordination and cases of patella luxation are reported.
Inflammation of the skin.
Crusty inflammations occur on the feet and head and the foot soles are hard and cracked. The excessive development of this "hard skin", also known as keratin, ensures that the legs look a little deformed. In places where there is a lot of frictional contact such as the elbows and heels, inflammation of hair roots is seen. Due to the reduced functioning of the immune system, other skin infections are often added.
Decreased vision and other eye problems.
Dogs with LAD seem to look with their eyes closed. The third eyelid may protrude slightly and they may have reduced vision.
In terms of behavior, they are reported to be aggressive and growl immediately instead of barking. People who have dogs with LAD report that the growl is not always meant to be angry, but rather a different way of communicating. From my own experience I can report that the reaction can be pretty fierce and out of proportion. If something happens that he doesn't think is funny, then he thinks he's a lion or something
THE FIRST SYMPTOMS
Not always, not all symptoms & not always as serious. There are dogs with LAD who are less seriously affected and dogs that show very serious symptoms. Not all symptoms need to show up.
First nothing: Just born you see nothing at all, really nothing. After a while the lagging growth will start to stand out, when you switch to solid food you will see a somewhat difficult eater and a coat that seems to become paler (which is difficult with a white one)…. it usually was. The first really characteristic symptoms, such as persistent skin inflammation, only pop up when the pup is between 4 and 12 weeks old.
The first signs: There are a few moments in the puppy life when a good attack on the immune system takes place. Grafting, worming and of course the move to the new owner. This move is already quite a condition for healthy puppies, let alone a dog with LAD. It can therefore happen that the so typical inflammations only start on 1 of these moments, including the move. This can cause a lot of stress and incomprehension between the breeder and the ultimate owner.
THE POSITION OF THE DIAGNOSIS
Because the condition is not well known by many veterinarians and until recently the diagnosis could only be made by adding up the symptoms, it was sometimes difficult to get the right diagnosis. The fact that the Bull Terrier is familiar with, among other things, allergies, stomach / intestinal problems and atopic dermatitis does not make it any easier.
A DNA test has been on the market since January 2018. There are 3 possible results: Clear / Carrier / At Risk
Many dogs with LAD are put to sleep at a young age. There is a group that makes an enormous effort to give these dogs very nice years in the years that they live. You can find them on Facebook by searching for "Bull Terrier lad (zincers)". Personally, I think that if you choose to give a dog with LAD a good time, you can look very carefully at the degree of burden. The short life may be "dogworthy" and not drenched in pain and other discomfort. If you decide to do this, ask the facebook group for help, there is a lot of knowledge in this area.
LARYNX PARALYSE (LP)
We see larynx paralysis, or vocal cord paralysis, especially in older, larger dog breeds. Typical breeds are, for example, the Retrievers (Labrador, Golden, Flatcoated and the like), Bouviers and dogs of equal weight classes. With vocal cord paralysis we see a typical problem with inhalation. It seems as if the throat is being closed. This is worse with exercise and stress and becomes less at rest. The bark changes often and eventually the dogs can no longer bark. The symptoms seen with vocal cord paralysis can also be caused by other problems around the throat. For example, we sometimes see tumors in that location that give the same clinical picture. The definitive diagnosis is made via an endoscopy. By giving the dog a light whirl and then see if the vocal cords still open and close normally when breathing.
The larynx is located at the entrance of the windpipe. This consists of a system of cartilaginous "bones". The vocal cords are located in the center of this. By contracting muscles connected to these cartilages, the vocal cords are pulled out by inhalation. The windpipe entrance widens, making it easier for air to enter.
The symptoms of laryngeal paralysis (vocal cord paralysis) are caused by the inability to open the vocal cords upon inhalation.
Normally, the space between the vocal cords increases upon inhalation because two cartilaginous "bones" to which the vocal cords are connected are then pulled out. The breathing opening of the windpipe entrance is enlarged and a larger amount of air can be drawn in. This does not happen with dogs with paralysis of the larynx and the entrance of the windpipe does not increase.
This causes the air to be sucked in at a higher speed and creates a nasty noise when inhaled.
Dogs with vocal cord paralysis have a different voice. The dogs are hoarse, hoarse, grumbling, coughing or have a different noise when breathing.
The dog can walk less far, is slower than before and playing is usually no longer possible.
If it is cold outside, the complaints are usually not too bad. Most animals get into trouble when it gets warmer:
The animal wants to pant to cool down, but is too stuffy for this.
The difficult breathing causes the vocal cords to swell, making breathing even more difficult.
Because the panting is not going well, the body temperature rises dangerously.
Most dogs panic.
First aid for stuffiness:
Find the nearest cool spot and let your dog rest.
Cool your dog by making it wet to the skin.
Find transportation and go to your vet as soon as possible. Turn on the air conditioning in the car or open the windows.
In many cases it is necessary to give your dog something calming (to sedate)
Sometimes it is necessary to put a tube in the throat. This is only possible if your dog is under general anesthesia
In dogs with thick, thick coats, it is sometimes necessary to shave the animal so that it cools down faster
In most cases the vocal cord paralysis is caused by wear and tear of nerve cells in the brain. Sometimes there is another cause:
- Trauma / operation
- A tumor in the neck area (often a thyroid tumor)
- Muscle or nerve diseases
Breeds with vocal cord paralysis:
The Labrador has the dubious honor to lead this list. But Golden Retrievers, St Bernards, Newfoundlanders, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, Afghans and Irish Setters also have an above average condition.
In the Bouvier, Siberian Husky, Malamute, Bullterrier and White Shepherd, a hereditary variant is known.
Among the Dalmatians, Rottweilers, Leonbergers and the Pyrenean Mountain Dog a muscular nerve disease has been described in which the vocal cords are involved.
The diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis is made by throat inspection / bronchoscopy.
A DNA test has been on the market since 2019. There are 3 possible results: Clear / Carrier / At Risk.
The treatment consists of surgery. The weird barking remains, but the animal is no longer stuffy. The treatment of laryngeal paralysis is aimed at widening the void, so that breathing can take place without hindrance.
Many techniques have been developed for this over the years. All techniques have the same goal but also the same disadvantage:
The voice gap can no longer close completely when swallowing
In recent years, one technique has distinguished itself that is very successful and, moreover, involves few complications. This is the so-called unilateral crico-arytenoid lateralisation, also known as the "tie-back" method. Hereby the (upper) attachment point of the vocal cord is pulled backwards and to the side:
The paralyzed muscle is, as it were, replaced by a suture
The most important complication after a laryngeal analysis is the possibility that the animal will choke.
In some animals with a vocal cord paralysis, it appears that in the long term there is a nerve-muscle disorder, as a result of which the esophagus function decreases. The chance of choking increases with those animals.
It is much better to live with this occasional choking than with the severe anxiety and the consequences of this for non-operated dogs.
Source: Medical center for animals